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Help for Ed (V 2.0) by Qixx


/ search forward for pattern ? search backward for a pattern = show current line number a append text starting after this line A like 'a' but with inverse autoindent mode c change current line, query for replacement text d delete line(s) e replace this file with another file E same as 'e' but works if file has been modified f show/change current file name g Search and execute command on any matching line. h help file (display this message) i insert text starting before this line I indent the entire code (Qixx version 1.0) j join lines together k mark this line with a character - later referenced as 'a l line line(s) with control characters displayed m move line(s) to specified line n toggle line numbering p print line(s) in range q quit editor Q quit editor even if file modified and not saved r read file into editor at end of file or behind the given line s search and replace set query, change or save option settings t move copy of line(s) to specified line v Search and execute command on any non-matching line. x save file and quit w write to current file (or specified file) W like the 'w' command but appends instead z display 20 lines, possible args are . + - Z display 40 lines, possible args are . + -

For further information type 'hc' inside ed where c is the command you want help on.

Some old help from 2.4.5....

When in 'ed', the prompt is ':'.

Ed has two modes, command mode and insert mode. The insert mode has no prompt. You exit the insert mode by typing a single '.' on a line.

All commands have the following syntax:


or Xcmd

For example:

1,10p Will print line 1 to 10. 1,5d Will delete line 1 to 5. 8p Will print line 8.

A '.' is the 'current line'. The current line is the last line referenced. If you want to print last line + 10 more:

Commands that use a line range: If no line is given, then curent line is printed.

p Print line. d Delete line. l Print line with control characters. r file Read in a file after the line specified. s Substitute patterns. See special documentation. z Print 10 lines. a Start insert mode after specified line. Exit with '.'<return>. i Start insert mode before specified line. Exit with '.'<return>.

Commands used without line specification:

q Quit. Won't work if file is changed. Q Quit and discard all changes if not saved. w Write the file out. w file Write the file out with name 'file'. e file Edit a file.

As line numbers '.' is current line, and '$' is last line of file. Thus '1,$p' will always print all of the file.

Substitutions are very advanced.

First a simple example:


This will substitue the 'apa' in current line to 'bepa'. If an 'p' is appended, you will also immediately see the result.


Same, but all lines in file. Only first occurence on every line.

Any character can used instead of '/':


The 'g' specifies that all occurences of apa on this line are changed to bepa.

The pattern that are supposed to be replaced, can be a regular expression.

Searching is done with:

/hello/ Find first line in of after current line. Just // will repeat the search.

There are special characters that can be used in the pattern: . Match any character. x* Match any numbers of x (0 or more). [abc] Match 'a', 'b' or 'c'. [0-9] Match any digit 0 - 9. [a-z] Match any lowercase letter. \x Match 'x' where 'x' can be any character except '(' and ')'.



Substitute any string 'abXd' against 'ABCD' where X can be any character.

How to copy from a standard file.

Enter ed. Then do 'r /room/vill_green.c'. Now you have something in the buffer. Change it into what you want it to be. Then 'w /players/peter/hall.c'. Or 'w hall.c'.


ed /global/wiz*
ed test.c
Copyright Statement

Epitaph - Epiphany v1.2.13 [release]. Copyright © Imaginary Realities Ltd 2009 -